Tuesday in Caracas, to more than 4000 students, José

Lino spoke in English and in Spanish for more two hours.



Key passages intervention of José Lino:

The Earth's climate system is extremely complex. It is based on a variety of known causes and totally unknown. Exposed global phenomena and extra-planets, our Planet is constantly changing alterating periods of heat and cold.

By the end of the century the Earth climate warms 1, 2, 3 or 4° C, as it can both cool on or more degrees Celsius. Nobody knows anything. There exists no global or estra-panetary factor to predict.

A major volcanic eruption releasing trillions of tons of ash to 10 or 15 Km altitude, the cilmate change for monts across a country, a Continent, or even the Planet, creating a barrier to the passage of atmospheric opaque light and heat emitted by the Sun.

Decrease or increase the flow of tropical air mass, the frequency and seventy of hurricanes, traffic thermo-aline, the interaction between the fluid surfaces (water and atmosphere), charges in the solar activity. And many other factors, some other non prévisibles, which can trigger changes a climate, shattering al predictions of climatologists.



The changing climate of the Planet is very difficult to describe.The best ting may be to start at the beenning:

As everyone knows, there formed 4,6 billion years ago our solar system consists of a stole (the Sun), four terrestrial planets (Mercure, Venus, Earth and Mars), four gas giants (Jupiter, Saturne, Uranus and Ndeptune), five dwarf planets, 165 satelltes, which graite asteroid belt around the Sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, icy objects, asteroids thousands of vagabonds ( who traverls the Galaxy and space solar of braking system constantly crossing the orbit of Planets at the speed of 60 000 Km/hour), and interplanetary dust. Our solar sytem is located in a quiet corner of on spiral arms of the Galaxy, the Orion arm, some 28 thousand light year from the galactic center, completing on full turn in 250 000 years (this is called a galactic year).

A about 150 million Km from the Earh, the Sun is a ball of gas a million times bigger than the Earth and alone accounts for 97 % of the mass of the solar system. The temperature the center exceeds 15 million degrees Celsius and the surface it is 6 000° C. It turns on itself in 26 days at the Equator and 36 days at the Poles, a magnetic field 5 000 times that of Earth and is reversed following periods of eleven years, the north pole becomes the south pole and conversely.

The Sun's atmsphere is divided into four main regions:

The photosphere, the visible ligth.

The chromosphere, the first layer enveloped by the Sun.

The corona, which occur and from where the solar wind of charged particles loaded.

And an area called heliosphere, which is against the interstellar medium as the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind against cosmic radiation. Its dimension varies with solar activity, but at least equal to 100 times the Earth-Sun distance, ie 15 billion Km.

The Sun is the only source of light and energy that allows bioligical activity to developed on Earth. And due to the tilt axis of he Planet, year is divided into four seasons: sprin, summer, autumn and winter. Except at the poles than half of the year is in full day and half the nigth almost complete. 


In the space of the inner solar system Earth rotates on itself in 23 hours, 59 minutes and 4 seconds, at a speed of 1 700 Kms/hour. And describes an ellipse around the Sun long 946 million Kms in 365 days, 6 hours and 9 minutes (the generates leap years) at a rate of 29,8 Kms/second (107 000 Kms/hour). And our Galaxy revolves around the huge black hole tha is in the center with a diameter of about 65 billion Km, at an average sped 165 000 Kms/hour.

For decades, some scientists told as that our Galaxy is moving in space towards the Galaxy Andromèdes, with which it would enter into collision. It was anoter lie. 

(A boy of 16 years, passionate astronomy, just to prove (and the result of his work was recognized by the scientific community) tha two Galaxies evolve with étonante stabilty each in its orbit, no tendency any reconciliation instead they are moving away due to the expansion of the Universe).


However, we aree tha it all oes much, much too fast over distances barely imaginable. We travel and going at te same speed browsing Kms 2,5 million every 24 hours without realizing it.

A it shows how exist on Earth involves riskys some other not avoiable. And how much space solar system, te Galaxy beyond te Cosmos, which are extremely dangerous at any moment trigger on one or the other Planets of the solar system cataclysms exterminators.

On the surface of the Planet people live on the ompnipresent of volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, tornadoes, storms and floods destructive or invasions virus killers. And many other planetary phenomena and extrapanetary, may at any time cause cataclysms extreminators.

In its orbit around the Sun the Planet, it can collide with a large asteroid, comet or one of thousands of asteroide geo-cruisers which crisscross Galaxy and solar system space without crossing Planetes orbit ceares. It can also be swept by gamma ray start magnetosphere which would be powerless to repel them. Spend a day or even too close to a big black hole that would swallow fraction second.


All this shows that pretend that the climate of the Planet is warming and that tis is due to the CO² released into the troposphere by human activities is a gross lie, ta was rooted in te collective imagination and impose taxes on everything an anyting in the name of the fight against global warming.

The current rate of atmosperic CO² as no impact on climate change of the Planet.



 My generation and those that preceded it, have extensively damaged the Planet. Tey have polluted the water, air and soil. They attacked ecosystems sometimes destroying their cabin. And te ave jeopardized bucks balances biodiversity, which is te mainstay of our own existence.

It is up to you top put the load right order.

Do you thing we can no nothing. But this is wrong, we can do many things. I have a friend tha is chilena recycling of plastic bags, bottles and metals, which are rensed to make other products. If each of us did the same thin, the Planet would so on be rid of these pollutants the poison.

But regardiess of any higher temperatures, the thermal expansion of the oceans and the accelerated melting ice masses during the first hall of the Century, five major defits to meet:

1.- Find solution to mitigate the consequences of overpopulation of the Planet.

2.- Create the conditions for tens billions of human beings to live as dignement possible in space that does no to expand and ressources will diminish. This will be the most difficult, because for ten billion people on Earth can live fairly, we need 800 million favored abandon many of their privileges, their luxuries and their wasteful.

3.-Restructure productive tools, channels of trade, transport and consumption patterns to developed a heatteir economy and less polluting.

4.-Produce all the electecity tha humanity will need, by passing bot energy fission nucleare, pontentilly dangerous, and fossil fuel pollutants too.

5.-Replace fuel and fossil fuels by fuels produced biolgically.

Or course you will encounter difficulties, but they are not more numerous than the potential consequences of not doing so.

A north african dictator recently declared on the eve of an armed intervention against the population of a city into rebelion "MUST FLEE OR DIE".


Unfortunately when life becomes problematic knew Earth, the will have to fight every day to get water and food, man can even escape.

Where to go?... 

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